9.4. notes

sumptuous – splendid and expensive-looking.

marred – to damage or spoil to a certain extent;

dowager – a woman who holds some title or property from her deceased husband, especially the widow of a king, duke, etc. (often used as an additional title to differentiate her from the wife of the present king, duke, etc.):a queen dowager; an empress dowager.

an elderly woman of stately dignity, especially one of elevated social position:a wealthy dowager.

adjective – noting, pertaining to, or characteristic of a dowager:


disarray – disorder, confusion

downtime –time during a regular working period when an employee is not actively productive;

an interval during which a machine is not productive, as during repair, malfunction, maintenance.


gig economy jobsWhat Is the Gig Economy?

Musicians often refer to performing at a place as taking on a “gig.” The gig economy works much the same way (without the need to carry a tune). Instead of a traditional, in-office, full-time job with a single company, gig workers work as short-term, temporary, or independent contractors for one or a variety of employers (though they are not employers in the traditional sense).

Though the term “gig economy” is relatively new, these nontraditional work arrangements have been around a long time. A study by the American Staffing Association found that the majority of Americans (78%) see the gig economy as a new way to describe the participation of this longstanding independent workforce.

How the Gig Economy Works

No matter what industry a gig worker is in, the gig economy consists of small tasks that the worker completes. These tasks can be anything from getting groceries to writing code. A gig worker can opt to work for a set amount of hours (like choosing a shift) or work by the project. Once the task or shift is complete, the worker moves on to the next gig. That might be another task with the same company, or something entirely different with another company.

In most cases, the shifts or projects are flexible. A gig worker might have a day job where they work a traditional 9-to-5 job, and then a second “gig job” from 5-to-9 at night. Or, a gig worker might work multiple “gigs” to create a full-time job, but on a flexible or alternative schedule. Gig workers can also choose to work from 9-to-5.

While many people think that the “company” is an employer, in the gig economy, that is not the case. Many companies that utilize gig workers—Uber, Instacart, TaskRabbit, MechanicalTurk—do not employ the gig worker. The company is merely the “connector,” bringing contractors and clients together.

Who Are Gig Workers?

Pinning down the exact number of people who work in the gig economy is difficult. Since the term “gig worker” covers a number of worker statuses—freelancer, temporary worker, and contract worker can all be a part of the gig economy—it’s hard to define who is and is not a gig worker.

However, some studies examine who and how many workers participate in the gig economy.

According to the BLS, as of May 2017, there were 10.6 million independent contractors (or 6.9% of all U.S. workers). The same survey also found that less than half of those workers rely on gig work as their primary source of income.

Many studies have tried to assess who a typical gig worker is, but there isn’t a single profile for a gig worker.

Men and women participate equally in the gig economy, but there are differences in what kinds of gigs they take on. Men are more likely to pursue labor gigs while women are more likely to work for direct marketing gigs or sell goods online. More men than women rely on gig work for full-time income. Women tend to work part-time or for supplemental income.

As new technologies continue to facilitate workforce collaboration and make working anywhere, anytime possible on a global scale, expect to see a lot more people experiencing the pleasures and pains of the gig economy. And, from a legislation standpoint, there’s far more to unfold.

scrapped – scrap – to discard as useless, worthless, or ineffective:He urged that we scrap the old method of teaching mathematics.


balk – to stop, as at an obstacle, and refuse to proceed or to do something specified (usually followed by at):He balked at making the speech.

influx – priljev

bachelorette – an unmarried young woman.

offshoot  – a branch or lateral shoot from a main stem, as of a plant.

anything conceived of as springing or proceeding from a main stock:an offshoot of a discussion.

a branch, descendant, or scion of a specific population or family.


inadvertent – unintentional:an inadvertent insult.


drawn-out – lasting longer than is usual or necessary:

This dispute has been a long drawn-out affair.


sheer – used to emphasize how very greatimportant, or powerful a quality or feeling is; nothing except:

The suggestion is sheer nonsense.

His success was due to sheer willpower/determination.

It was sheer coincidence that we met.

doesn’t live up to your expectations

to be  put to the test

to seek out opportunities

to build up rapport with people

to strive for sth

competative advantage – konkuretna prednost

corporate accountability – korporacijska odgovornost

to embrace – prigrliti, prihvatiti

to deploy – upotrijebiti  pravilno

to allocate – dodijeliti

to roam – lutati

to squander – tratiti