Present Perfect: Use

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We use Present Perfect for (Present Perfect koristimo za):

1. actions which happened at an unstated time in the past
(za radnje koje su se zbile u nenavedeno vrijeme u prošlosti)
• He has sold his car. (When? We don’t know.)
(Prodao je svoj auto. (Kada? Ne znamo.))

2. to express actions which have finished so recently that there’s evidence in the present
(za izražavanje radnji koje su završile toliko nedavno da u sadašnjosti vidimo dokaze)
• He has just painted the room. (The paint is wet.)
(Upravo je oličio sobu. (Boja je mokra.))

3. for actions which started in the past and continue up to the present
(za radnje koje su započele u prošlosti i još uvijek traju)
• She has lived in this house for two years. (She still lives in this house.)
(Živi u ovoj kući dvije godine. (Još uvijek živi u ovoj kući.))
BUT (ALI) : He lived in Australia for one year. (He doesn’t live in Australia now.)

4. for a past action whose time is not mentioned but which is connected with the present
(za radnju u prošlosti čije vrijeme odvijanja nije spomenuto ali koja je povezana sa sadašnjosti)
• I’ve met Madonna. (I may meet her again; she’s still alive. – period of time not finished yet)
(Upoznao sam Madonnu. (Možda je opet vidim; još je živa. – vrijeme odvijanja još nije završeno.))

Time adverbs and expressions used with Present Perfect

(Oznake vremena koje se koriste uz Present Perfect):

• just (baš, upravo)
• ever (ikad)
• never (nikad)
• always (uvijek)
• already (već)
• yet (već)
• for (-za period vremena-)
• since (od)
• so far (dosad)
• how long (koliko dugo)
• recently (nedavno, nedugo)
• today (danas)
• this week/month (ovaj tjedan/mjesec)
• this year (ove godine)
• once (jedanput)
• several times (nekoliko puta)


Special points (posebne napomene)

Since is used to express a starting point.
(Since koristimo za izražavanje početka radnje.)
• I’ve known Ann since October. (Znam Ann od listopada.)

For is used to express a period of time.
(For koristimo za izražavanje vremenskog perioda)
• I’ve known Ann for two months. (Znam Ann dva mjeseca.)

Yet is used in questions and negations.
(Yet koristimo u pitanjima i negacijama.)
• Have you met him yet? I haven’t met him yet.
(Jesi li ga već upoznao? Nisam ga još upoznao.)

Already is used in statements and questions.
(Already koristimo u izjavama i pitanjima.)
• I’ve already posted the letters. (Već sam poslao pisma.)

Just + Present Perfect
• I’ve just called the doctor. (Upravo sam pozvao doktora.)

Just now + Past Simple
• He left just now. (Baš sad je otišao.)