Present Perfect – Form and Spelling

Formation of Present Perfect and spelling rules.

(Tvorba Present Perfecta i pravila pisanja.)

Affirmative (potvrdni oblik)

Long form (neskraćeni oblik)

Present perfect is formed of the auxiliary verb HAVE (HAVE / HAS) and the past participle of the main verb. The past participle of regular verbs is formed by adding the ending -ed. Irregular verbs have their own forms. See our list of irregular verbs.
(Present perfect tvori se od pomoćnog glagola HAVE (HAVE / HAS) i prošlog participa glavnog glagola. Prošli particip pravilnih glagola tvori se dodavanjem nastavka -ed. Nepravilni glagoli imaju vlastiti oblik. Pogledaj našu listu nepravilnih glagola.)

Regular verbs Irregular verbs
• I have walked (hodao sam)
• You have walked (hodao si)
• He / She / It has walked
(hodao / hodala / hodalo je)

• We have walked (hodali smo)
• You have walked (hodali ste)
• They have walked (hodali su)
• I have eaten (jeo sam)
• You have eaten (jeo si)
• He / She / It has eaten
(jeo / jela / jelo je)

• We have eaten (jeli smo)
• You have eaten (jeli ste)
• They have eaten (jeli su)

Short form (skraćeni oblik)

The short form of the present perfect is formed of the shortened auxiliary verb HAVE (HAVE / HAS) and the past participle of the main verb.
(Skraćeni oblik present perfecta tvori se od skraćenog pomoćnog glagola HAVE (HAVE / HAS) i prošlog participa glavnog glagola.)

Regular verbs Irregular verbs
• I’ve walked (hodao sam)
• You’ve walked (hodao si)
• He / She / It’s walked
(hodao / hodala / hodalo je)

• We’ve walked (hodali smo)
• You’ve walked (hodali ste)
• They’ve walked (hodali su)
• I’ve eaten (jeo sam)
• You’ve eaten (jeo si)
• He / She / It’s eaten
(jeo / jela / jelo je)

• We’ve eaten (jeli smo)
• You’ve eaten (jeli ste)
• They’ve eaten (jeli su)


Negative (niječni oblik)

Long form (neskraćeni oblik)

The long form negative is formed of the auxiliary verb HAVE (HAVE / HAS) + NOT and the past participle of the main verb.
(Neskraćeni niječni oblik tvori se od pomoćnog glagola HAVE (HAVE / HAS) + NOT i prošlog participa glavnog glagola.)

Regular verbs Irregular verbs
• I have not walked  (nisam hodao)
• You have not walked  (nisi hodao)
• He / She / It has not walked
(nije hodao / hodala / hodalo)

• We have not walked (nismo hodali)
• You have not walked (niste hodali)
• They have not walked (nisu hodali)

• I have not eaten (nisam jeo)
• You have not eaten (nisi jeo)
• He / She / It has not eaten
(nije jeo / jela / jelo)

• We have not eaten (nismo jeli)
• You have not eaten (niste jeli)
• They have not eaten (nisu jeli)

Short form (skraćeni oblik)

The short negative is formed of the auxiliary verb HAVE (HAVE / HAS) + shortened NOT and the past participle of the main verb.
(Skraćeni niječni oblik tvori se od pomoćnog glagola HAVE (HAVE / HAS) + skraćenog NOT i prošlog participa glavnog glagola.)

Regular verbs Irregular verbs
• I haven’t walked  (nisam hodao)
• You haven’t walked  (nisi hodao)
• He / She / It hasn’t walked
(nije hodao / hodala/ hodalo)

• We haven’t walked (nismo hodali)
• You haven’t walked (niste hodali)
• They haven’t walked (nisu hodali)

• I haven’t eaten (nisam jeo)
• You haven’t eaten (nisi jeo)
• He / She / It hasn’t eaten
(nije jeo / jela / jelo)

• We haven’t eaten (nismo jeli)
• You haven’t eaten (niste jeli)
• They haven’t eaten (nisu jeli)

Interrogative – affirmative (upitni potvrdni oblik)

The affirmative interrogative is formed with the auxiliary verb HAVE (HAVE / HAS) in front of the subject followed by the past participle of the main verb.
(Upitni potvrdni oblik tvori se od pomoćnog glagola HAVE (HAVE / HAS) ispred subjekta iza kojeg stoji prošli particip glavnog glagola.)

Regular verbs Irregular verbs
• Have I walked? (jesam li hodao?)
• Have you walked? (jesi li hodao?)
• Has he / she / it walked?
(je li hodao / hodala / hodalo?)

• Have we walked? (jesmo li hodali?)
• Have you walked? (jeste li hodali?)
• Have they walked? (jesu li hodali?)

• Have I eaten? (jesam li jeo?)
• Have you eaten? (jesi li jeo?)
• Has he / she / it eaten?
(je li jeo / jela / jelo?)

• Have we eaten? (jesmo li jeli?)
• Have you eaten? (jeste li jeli?)
• Have they eaten? (jesu li jeli?)

Interrogative – negative (upitni niječni oblik)

Long form (neskraćeni oblik)

The long form negative interrogative is formed with the auxiliary verb HAVE (HAVE / HAS) in front of the subject followed by NOT and the past participle of the main verb.
(Neskraćeni upitni niječni oblik tvori se od pomoćnog glagola HAVE (HAVE / HAS) ispred subjekta iza kojeg stoji NOT i prošli particip glavnog glagola.)

Regular verbs Irregular verbs
• Have not walked? (nisam li hodao?)
• Have you not walked? (nisi li hodao?)
• Has he / she / it not walked?
(nije li hodao / hodala / hodalo?)

• Have we not walked? (nismo li hodali?)
• Have you not walked? (niste li hodali?)
• Have they not walked? (nisu li hodali?)

• Have I not eaten? (nisam li jeo?)
• Have you not eaten? (nisi li jeo?)
• Has he / she / it not eaten?
(nije li jeo / jela / jelo?)

• Have we not eaten? (nismo li jeli?)
• Have you not eaten? (niste li jeli?)
• Have they not eaten? (nisu li jeli?)

Short form (skraćeni oblik)

The short form negative interrogative is formed with the shortened negative of the auxiliary verb HAVE (HAVEN’T / HASN’T) in front of the subject followed by the past participle of the main verb.
(Skraćeni upitni niječni oblik tvori se od skraćenog negativa pomoćnog glagola HAVE (HAVEN’T / HASN’T) ispred subjekta iza kojeg stoji prošli particip glavnog glagola.)

Regular verbs Irregular verbs
• Haven’t I walked? (nisam li hodao?)
• Haven’t you walked? (nisi li hodao?)
• Hasn’t he / she / it walked?
(nije li hodao / hodala / hodalo?)

• Haven’t we walked? (nismo li hodali?)
• Haven’t you walked? (niste li hodali?)
• Haven’t they walked? (nisu li hodali?)

• Haven’t I eaten? (nisam li jeo?)
• Haven’t you eaten? (nisi li jeo?)
• Hasn’t he / she / it eaten?
(nije li jeo / jela / jelo?)

• Haven’t we eaten? (nismo li jeli?)
• Haven’t you eaten? (niste li jeli?)
• Haven’t they eaten? (nisu li jeli?)

Spelling (pravila pisanja)

-e → -ed
• type – typed  (tipkati – tipkao)
• smoke – smoked  (pušiti – pušio)

double consonant + ed

(dvostruki suglasnik + ed)
• prefer – preferred  (preferirati – preferirao)
• stop – stopped  (zaustaviti – zaustavio)

consonant + y  -ied
(suglasnik + y → ed)
• study – studied  (učiti – učio)
• tidy – tidied (pospremati – pospremao)

vowel + y  -yed
(samosuglasnik + y → yed)
• play – played  (igrati – igrao)
• stay – stayed  (ostati – ostao)